਍㰀栀攀愀搀㸀ഀഀ ਍匀攀礀挀栀攀氀氀攀猀 䜀漀瘀攀爀渀洀攀渀琀 ㈀ ㄀㈀Ⰰ 䌀䤀䄀 圀漀爀氀搀 䘀愀挀琀戀漀漀欀ഀഀ ਍㰀䴀䔀吀䄀 一䄀䴀䔀㴀∀䐀攀猀挀爀椀瀀琀椀漀渀∀  䌀伀一吀䔀一吀㴀∀匀攀礀挀栀攀氀氀攀猀 䜀漀瘀攀爀渀洀攀渀琀 ㈀ ㄀㈀Ⰰ 䌀䤀䄀 圀漀爀氀搀 䘀愀挀琀戀漀漀欀∀㸀ഀഀ ਍ഀഀ ਍㰀猀琀礀氀攀 琀礀瀀攀㴀∀琀攀砀琀⼀挀猀猀∀㸀ഀഀ A:link { text-decoration: none; color:#000066; }਍䄀㨀瘀椀猀椀琀攀搀 笀 琀攀砀琀ⴀ搀攀挀漀爀愀琀椀漀渀㨀 渀漀渀攀㬀  挀漀氀漀爀㨀⌀    㘀㘀㬀 紀ഀഀ A:active { text-decoration: none; color:#000066; }਍䄀㨀栀漀瘀攀爀 笀 琀攀砀琀ⴀ搀攀挀漀爀愀琀椀漀渀㨀 渀漀渀攀㬀 挀漀氀漀爀㨀⌀㤀㤀  ㌀㌀㬀 紀 ഀഀ a { text-decoration: none}਍㰀⼀猀琀礀氀攀㸀ഀഀ ਍ഀഀ ਍ഀഀ
਍㰀猀挀爀椀瀀琀㸀⠀昀甀渀挀琀椀漀渀⠀搀Ⰰ 猀Ⰰ 椀搀⤀ 笀ഀഀ var js, fjs = d.getElementsByTagName(s)[0];਍  椀昀 ⠀搀⸀最攀琀䔀氀攀洀攀渀琀䈀礀䤀搀⠀椀搀⤀⤀ 爀攀琀甀爀渀㬀ഀഀ js = d.createElement(s); js.id = id;਍  樀猀⸀猀爀挀 㴀 ∀⼀⼀挀漀渀渀攀挀琀⸀昀愀挀攀戀漀漀欀⸀渀攀琀⼀攀渀开唀匀⼀愀氀氀⸀樀猀⌀砀昀戀洀氀㴀㄀☀愀瀀瀀䤀搀㴀㄀㠀㌀㘀 ㄀㐀㄀㔀 㠀㈀㄀㐀㘀∀㬀ഀഀ fjs.parentNode.insertBefore(js, fjs);਍紀⠀搀漀挀甀洀攀渀琀Ⰰ ✀猀挀爀椀瀀琀✀Ⰰ ✀昀愀挀攀戀漀漀欀ⴀ樀猀猀搀欀✀⤀⤀㬀㰀⼀猀挀爀椀瀀琀㸀ഀഀ ਍㰀琀愀戀氀攀  戀愀挀欀最爀漀甀渀搀㴀∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀琀栀攀漀搀漀爀愀⸀挀漀洀⼀眀昀戀㈀  㠀⼀椀洀愀最攀猀⼀搀爀甀最猀戀最爀⸀最椀昀∀ 眀椀搀琀栀㴀∀㤀㜀㈀∀ 愀氀椀最渀㴀∀琀漀瀀∀㸀㰀琀爀㸀㰀琀搀 挀漀氀猀瀀愀渀㴀∀㈀∀ 眀椀搀琀栀㴀∀㤀㜀㈀∀㸀ഀഀ | COUNTRIES | GEOGRAPHIC NAMES | GEOLOGY | USA STATS | CHINA STATS | COUNTRY CODES | AIRPORTS | RELIGION | JOBS | ਍ഀഀ ਍㰀琀愀戀氀攀 戀漀爀搀攀爀㴀∀ ∀ 戀最挀漀氀漀爀㴀∀眀栀椀琀攀∀ 挀攀氀氀猀瀀愀挀椀渀最㴀∀ ∀ 挀攀氀氀瀀愀搀搀椀渀最㴀∀ ∀ 眀椀搀琀栀㴀∀㤀㜀㈀∀ 愀氀椀最渀㴀∀琀漀瀀∀ 瘀愀氀椀最渀㴀∀琀漀瀀∀ 栀猀瀀愀挀攀㴀∀ ∀ 瘀猀瀀愀挀攀㴀∀ ∀  甀渀椀琀猀㴀∀瀀椀砀攀氀猀∀㸀ഀഀ ਍ഀഀ ਍㰀琀搀 愀氀椀最渀㴀∀氀攀昀琀∀ 瘀愀氀椀最渀㴀∀琀漀瀀∀ 眀椀搀琀栀㴀∀㜀㈀㠀∀ 渀漀眀爀愀瀀㸀ഀഀ ਍㰀猀挀爀椀瀀琀 琀礀瀀攀㴀∀琀攀砀琀⼀樀愀瘀愀猀挀爀椀瀀琀∀㸀㰀℀ⴀⴀഀഀ google_ad_client = "ca-pub-7437757543052749";਍⼀⨀ 圀䘀䈀 䰀攀愀搀攀爀戀漀愀爀搀 ⨀⼀ഀഀ google_ad_slot = "7548094546";਍最漀漀最氀攀开愀搀开眀椀搀琀栀 㴀 㜀㈀㠀㬀ഀഀ google_ad_height = 90;਍⼀⼀ⴀⴀ㸀ഀഀ ਍㰀猀挀爀椀瀀琀 琀礀瀀攀㴀∀琀攀砀琀⼀樀愀瘀愀猀挀爀椀瀀琀∀ഀഀ src="//pagead2.googlesyndication.com/pagead/show_ads.js">਍㰀⼀猀挀爀椀瀀琀㸀ഀഀ ਍㰀⼀琀搀㸀㰀⼀琀爀㸀ഀഀ ਍㰀椀洀最 猀爀挀㴀∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀琀栀攀漀搀漀爀愀⸀挀漀洀⼀眀昀戀㈀  㠀⼀椀洀愀最攀猀⼀氀椀渀攀㄀⸀最椀昀∀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀㰀⼀琀爀㸀ഀഀ ਍ഀഀ ਍㰀戀爀㸀㰀⼀昀漀渀琀㸀ഀഀ Seychelles Government 2012਍㰀戀爀㸀ഀഀ ਍栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀椀洀洀椀最爀愀琀椀漀渀ⴀ甀猀愀⸀挀漀洀⼀眀漀爀氀搀开昀愀挀琀开戀漀漀欀开㈀ ㄀㈀⼀猀攀礀挀栀攀氀氀攀猀⼀猀攀礀挀栀攀氀氀攀猀开最漀瘀攀爀渀洀攀渀琀⸀栀琀洀氀ഀഀ ਍㰀戀爀㸀ഀഀ SOURCE: 2012 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK AND OTHER SOURCES਍㰀琀爀 栀攀椀最栀琀㴀∀㌀∀ 愀氀椀最渀㴀∀氀攀昀琀∀ 瘀愀氀椀最渀㴀∀琀漀瀀∀ 戀最挀漀氀漀爀㴀∀眀栀椀琀攀∀ 渀漀眀爀愀瀀 甀渀椀琀猀㴀∀瀀椀砀攀氀猀∀㸀ഀഀ ਍㰀椀洀最 猀爀挀㴀∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀琀栀攀漀搀漀爀愀⸀挀漀洀⼀眀昀戀㈀  㠀⼀椀洀愀最攀猀⼀氀椀渀攀㄀㌀⸀最椀昀∀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀㰀⼀琀爀㸀㰀⼀琀愀戀氀攀㸀ഀഀ ਍㰀琀愀戀氀攀 戀漀爀搀攀爀㴀∀ ∀ 戀最挀漀氀漀爀㴀∀⌀䘀䘀䌀䌀㤀㤀∀ 挀攀氀氀猀瀀愀挀椀渀最㴀∀ ∀ 挀攀氀氀瀀愀搀搀椀渀最㴀∀ ∀ 眀椀搀琀栀㴀∀㤀㜀㈀∀ 愀氀椀最渀㴀∀氀攀昀琀∀ 瘀愀氀椀最渀㴀∀琀漀瀀∀ 栀猀瀀愀挀攀㴀∀ ∀ 瘀猀瀀愀挀攀㴀∀ ∀  甀渀椀琀猀㴀∀瀀椀砀攀氀猀∀㸀ഀഀ ਍㰀昀漀渀琀 昀愀挀攀㴀∀愀爀椀愀氀∀㸀ഀഀ ਍ഀഀ

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਍ഀഀ ਍ഀഀ ਍㰀戀爀㸀㰀戀爀㸀㰀戀爀㸀㰀戀爀㸀ഀഀ ਍㰀戀爀㸀ഀഀഀ ਍ഀഀഀ ਍㰀栀爀㸀ഀഀഀ




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਍㰀⼀挀攀渀琀攀爀㸀ഀഀ ਍ഀഀ ਍ഀഀ ਍㰀昀漀渀琀 昀愀挀攀㴀∀愀爀椀愀氀∀㸀㰀戀爀㸀ഀഀ ਍㰀琀愀戀氀攀㸀㰀琀爀㸀㰀琀搀 眀椀搀琀栀㴀∀㌀㔀 ∀㸀ഀഀ GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES਍㰀⼀琀搀㸀㰀琀搀 眀椀搀琀栀㴀∀㌀  ∀㸀ഀഀ Spanish਍㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀琀爀愀渀猀氀愀琀攀⸀最漀漀最氀攀⸀挀漀洀⼀琀爀愀渀猀氀愀琀攀㼀甀㴀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀椀洀洀椀最爀愀琀椀漀渀ⴀ甀猀愀⸀挀漀洀⼀眀漀爀氀搀开昀愀挀琀开戀漀漀欀开㈀ ㄀㈀⼀猀攀礀挀栀攀氀氀攀猀⼀猀攀礀挀栀攀氀氀攀猀开最漀瘀攀爀渀洀攀渀琀⸀栀琀洀氀☀猀氀㴀攀渀☀琀氀㴀稀栀ⴀ䌀一☀椀攀㴀唀吀䘀ⴀ㠀☀漀攀㴀唀吀䘀ⴀ㠀∀ 琀愀爀最攀琀㴀∀开戀氀愀渀欀∀㸀㰀椀洀最 戀漀爀搀攀爀 㴀∀ ∀ 猀爀挀㴀∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀琀栀攀漀搀漀爀愀⸀挀漀洀⼀椀洀愀最攀猀⼀挀栀椀渀攀猀攀开琀爀愀渀猀氀愀琀攀⸀最椀昀∀ 愀氀琀㴀∀匀椀洀瀀氀椀昀椀攀搀 䌀栀椀渀攀猀攀∀㸀㰀⼀愀㸀ഀഀ French਍㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀琀爀愀渀猀氀愀琀攀⸀最漀漀最氀攀⸀挀漀洀⼀琀爀愀渀猀氀愀琀攀㼀甀㴀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀椀洀洀椀最爀愀琀椀漀渀ⴀ甀猀愀⸀挀漀洀⼀眀漀爀氀搀开昀愀挀琀开戀漀漀欀开㈀ ㄀㈀⼀猀攀礀挀栀攀氀氀攀猀⼀猀攀礀挀栀攀氀氀攀猀开最漀瘀攀爀渀洀攀渀琀⸀栀琀洀氀☀猀氀㴀攀渀☀琀氀㴀搀攀☀椀攀㴀唀吀䘀ⴀ㠀☀漀攀㴀唀吀䘀ⴀ㠀∀ 琀愀爀最攀琀㴀∀开戀氀愀渀欀∀㸀㰀椀洀最 戀漀爀搀攀爀 㴀∀ ∀ 猀爀挀㴀∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀琀栀攀漀搀漀爀愀⸀挀漀洀⼀椀洀愀最攀猀⼀最攀爀洀愀渀开琀爀愀渀猀氀愀琀攀⸀最椀昀∀ 愀氀琀㴀∀䜀攀爀洀愀渀∀㸀㰀⼀愀㸀ഀഀ Russian਍㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀琀爀愀渀猀氀愀琀攀⸀最漀漀最氀攀⸀挀漀洀⼀琀爀愀渀猀氀愀琀攀㼀甀㴀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀椀洀洀椀最爀愀琀椀漀渀ⴀ甀猀愀⸀挀漀洀⼀眀漀爀氀搀开昀愀挀琀开戀漀漀欀开㈀ ㄀㈀⼀猀攀礀挀栀攀氀氀攀猀⼀猀攀礀挀栀攀氀氀攀猀开最漀瘀攀爀渀洀攀渀琀⸀栀琀洀氀☀猀氀㴀攀渀☀琀氀㴀栀椀☀椀攀㴀唀吀䘀ⴀ㠀☀漀攀㴀唀吀䘀ⴀ㠀∀ 琀愀爀最攀琀㴀∀开戀氀愀渀欀∀㸀㰀椀洀最 戀漀爀搀攀爀 㴀∀ ∀ 猀爀挀㴀∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀琀栀攀漀搀漀爀愀⸀挀漀洀⼀椀洀愀最攀猀⼀栀椀渀搀椀开琀爀愀渀猀氀愀琀攀⸀最椀昀∀ 愀氀琀㴀∀䠀椀渀搀椀∀㸀㰀⼀愀㸀ഀഀ Arabic਍㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀琀爀愀渀猀氀愀琀攀⸀最漀漀最氀攀⸀挀漀洀⼀琀爀愀渀猀氀愀琀攀㼀甀㴀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀椀洀洀椀最爀愀琀椀漀渀ⴀ甀猀愀⸀挀漀洀⼀眀漀爀氀搀开昀愀挀琀开戀漀漀欀开㈀ ㄀㈀⼀猀攀礀挀栀攀氀氀攀猀⼀猀攀礀挀栀攀氀氀攀猀开最漀瘀攀爀渀洀攀渀琀⸀栀琀洀氀☀猀氀㴀攀渀☀琀氀㴀瀀琀☀椀攀㴀唀吀䘀ⴀ㠀☀漀攀㴀唀吀䘀ⴀ㠀∀ 琀愀爀最攀琀㴀∀开戀氀愀渀欀∀㸀㰀椀洀最 戀漀爀搀攀爀 㴀∀ ∀ 猀爀挀㴀∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀琀栀攀漀搀漀爀愀⸀挀漀洀⼀椀洀愀最攀猀⼀瀀漀爀琀甀最甀攀猀攀开琀爀愀渀猀氀愀琀攀⸀最椀昀∀ 愀氀琀㴀∀倀漀爀琀甀最甀攀猀攀∀㸀㰀⼀愀㸀ഀഀ ਍ഀഀ ਍㰀䠀刀㸀ഀഀ ਍㰀戀爀㸀ഀഀ ਍㰀猀挀爀椀瀀琀 琀礀瀀攀㴀∀琀攀砀琀⼀樀愀瘀愀猀挀爀椀瀀琀∀㸀㰀℀ⴀⴀഀഀ google_ad_client = "ca-pub-7437757543052749";਍⼀⨀ 圀䘀䈀 䰀愀爀最攀 刀攀挀琀愀渀最氀攀 ⨀⼀ഀഀ google_ad_slot = "8137512903";਍最漀漀最氀攀开愀搀开眀椀搀琀栀 㴀 ㌀㌀㘀㬀ഀഀ google_ad_height = 280;਍⼀⼀ⴀⴀ㸀ഀഀ ਍㰀猀挀爀椀瀀琀 琀礀瀀攀㴀∀琀攀砀琀⼀樀愀瘀愀猀挀爀椀瀀琀∀ഀഀ src="//pagead2.googlesyndication.com/pagead/show_ads.js">਍㰀⼀猀挀爀椀瀀琀㸀ഀഀ ਍ഀഀ ਍㰀戀爀㸀ഀഀ ਍倀愀最攀 氀愀猀琀 甀瀀搀愀琀攀搀 漀渀 䘀攀戀爀甀愀爀礀 㠀Ⰰഀഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ

Country name:
਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ 㰀椀㸀挀漀渀瘀攀渀琀椀漀渀愀氀 氀漀渀最 昀漀爀洀㨀㰀⼀椀㸀 刀攀瀀甀戀氀椀挀 漀昀 匀攀礀挀栀攀氀氀攀猀 ഀ ਍ 㰀戀爀㸀㰀椀㸀挀漀渀瘀攀渀琀椀漀渀愀氀 猀栀漀爀琀 昀漀爀洀㨀㰀⼀椀㸀 匀攀礀挀栀攀氀氀攀猀ഀ ਍ 㰀戀爀㸀㰀椀㸀氀漀挀愀氀 氀漀渀最 昀漀爀洀㨀㰀⼀椀㸀 刀攀瀀甀戀氀椀挀 漀昀 匀攀礀挀栀攀氀氀攀猀ഀ ਍ 㰀戀爀㸀㰀椀㸀氀漀挀愀氀 猀栀漀爀琀 昀漀爀洀㨀㰀⼀椀㸀 匀攀礀挀栀攀氀氀攀猀ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ 㰀瀀㸀㰀戀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀 㴀 ∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀琀栀攀漀搀漀爀愀⸀挀漀洀⼀眀昀戀⼀眀昀戀㈀   ⼀搀攀昀椀渀椀琀椀漀渀猀⸀栀琀洀氀⌀最漀瘀攀爀渀洀攀渀琀开琀礀瀀攀∀㸀䜀漀瘀攀爀渀洀攀渀琀 琀礀瀀攀㨀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀戀㸀㰀戀爀㸀ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ republic਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ

Capital:
਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ 㰀椀㸀渀愀洀攀㨀㰀⼀椀㸀 嘀椀挀琀漀爀椀愀ഀ ਍ഀ
geographic coordinates: 4 38 S, 55 27 E਍ ഀ
time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ

Administrative divisions:
਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ㈀㌀ 愀搀洀椀渀椀猀琀爀愀琀椀瘀攀 搀椀猀琀爀椀挀琀猀㬀 䄀渀猀攀 愀甀砀 倀椀渀猀Ⰰ 䄀渀猀攀 䈀漀椀氀攀愀甀Ⰰ 䄀渀猀攀 䔀琀漀椀氀攀Ⰰ 䄀渀猀攀 䰀漀甀椀猀Ⰰ 䄀渀猀攀 刀漀礀愀氀攀Ⰰ 䈀愀椀攀 䰀愀稀愀爀攀Ⰰ 䈀愀椀攀 匀愀椀渀琀攀 䄀渀渀攀Ⰰ 䈀攀愀甀 嘀愀氀氀漀渀Ⰰ 䈀攀氀 䄀椀爀Ⰰ 䈀攀氀 伀洀戀爀攀Ⰰ 䌀愀猀挀愀搀攀Ⰰ 䜀氀愀挀椀猀Ⰰ 䜀爀愀渀搀✀ 䄀渀猀攀 ⠀漀渀 䴀愀栀攀⤀Ⰰ 䜀爀愀渀搀✀ 䄀渀猀攀 ⠀漀渀 倀爀愀猀氀椀渀⤀Ⰰ 䰀愀 䐀椀最甀攀Ⰰ 䰀愀 刀椀瘀椀攀爀攀 䄀渀最氀愀椀猀攀Ⰰ 䴀漀渀琀 䈀甀砀琀漀渀Ⰰ 䴀漀渀琀 䘀氀攀甀爀椀Ⰰ 倀氀愀椀猀愀渀挀攀Ⰰ 倀漀椀渀琀攀 䰀愀 刀甀攀Ⰰ 倀漀爀琀 䜀氀愀甀搀Ⰰ 匀愀椀渀琀 䰀漀甀椀猀Ⰰ 吀愀欀愀洀愀欀愀ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ 㰀瀀㸀㰀戀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀 㴀 ∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀琀栀攀漀搀漀爀愀⸀挀漀洀⼀眀昀戀⼀眀昀戀㈀   ⼀搀攀昀椀渀椀琀椀漀渀猀⸀栀琀洀氀⌀椀渀搀攀瀀攀渀搀攀渀挀攀∀㸀䤀渀搀攀瀀攀渀搀攀渀挀攀㨀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀戀㸀㰀戀爀㸀ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ 29 June 1976 (from the UK)਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ

National holiday:
਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ 䌀漀渀猀琀椀琀甀琀椀漀渀 䐀愀礀 ⠀一愀琀椀漀渀愀氀 䐀愀礀⤀Ⰰ ㄀㠀 䨀甀渀攀 ⠀㄀㤀㤀㌀⤀ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ 㰀瀀㸀㰀戀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀 㴀 ∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀琀栀攀漀搀漀爀愀⸀挀漀洀⼀眀昀戀⼀眀昀戀㈀   ⼀搀攀昀椀渀椀琀椀漀渀猀⸀栀琀洀氀⌀挀漀渀猀琀椀琀甀琀椀漀渀∀㸀䌀漀渀猀琀椀琀甀琀椀漀渀㨀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀戀㸀㰀戀爀㸀ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ 18 June 1993਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ

Legal system:
਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ 洀椀砀攀搀 氀攀最愀氀 猀礀猀琀攀洀 漀昀 䔀渀最氀椀猀栀 挀漀洀洀漀渀 氀愀眀Ⰰ 䘀爀攀渀挀栀 挀椀瘀椀氀 氀愀眀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 挀甀猀琀漀洀愀爀礀 氀愀眀ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ 㰀瀀㸀㰀戀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀 㴀 ∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀琀栀攀漀搀漀爀愀⸀挀漀洀⼀眀昀戀⼀眀昀戀㈀   ⼀搀攀昀椀渀椀琀椀漀渀猀⸀栀琀洀氀⌀椀渀琀攀爀渀愀琀椀漀渀愀氀开氀愀眀开漀爀最愀渀椀稀愀琀椀漀渀开瀀愀爀琀椀挀椀瀀愀琀椀漀渀∀㸀䤀渀琀攀爀渀愀琀椀漀渀愀氀 氀愀眀 漀爀最愀渀椀稀愀琀椀漀渀 瀀愀爀琀椀挀椀瀀愀琀椀漀渀㨀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀戀㸀㰀戀爀㸀ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ

Suffrage:
਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ㄀㜀 礀攀愀爀猀 漀昀 愀最攀㬀 甀渀椀瘀攀爀猀愀氀ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ ਍ഀഀ
[see also: Suffrage country ranks ]਍ ഀ ਍ 㰀瀀㸀㰀戀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀 㴀 ∀猀攀礀挀栀攀氀氀攀猀开挀栀椀攀昀猀⸀栀琀洀氀∀㸀䔀砀攀挀甀琀椀瘀攀 戀爀愀渀挀栀㰀⼀愀㸀㨀㰀⼀戀㸀㰀戀爀㸀ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ chief of state: President James Alix MICHEL (since 14 April 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government਍ഀ ਍ 㰀戀爀㸀㰀椀㸀栀攀愀搀 漀昀 最漀瘀攀爀渀洀攀渀琀㨀㰀⼀椀㸀 倀爀攀猀椀搀攀渀琀 䨀愀洀攀猀 䄀氀椀砀 䴀䤀䌀䠀䔀䰀 ⠀猀椀渀挀攀 ㄀㐀 䄀瀀爀椀氀 ㈀  㐀⤀ഀ ਍ 㰀戀爀㸀㰀椀㸀挀愀戀椀渀攀琀㨀㰀⼀椀㸀 䌀漀甀渀挀椀氀 漀昀 䴀椀渀椀猀琀攀爀猀 愀瀀瀀漀椀渀琀攀搀 戀礀 琀栀攀 瀀爀攀猀椀搀攀渀琀ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ 㰀戀爀㸀㰀椀㸀攀氀攀挀琀椀漀渀猀㨀㰀⼀椀㸀 瀀爀攀猀椀搀攀渀琀 攀氀攀挀琀攀搀 戀礀 瀀漀瀀甀氀愀爀 瘀漀琀攀 昀漀爀 愀 昀椀瘀攀ⴀ礀攀愀爀 琀攀爀洀 ⠀攀氀椀最椀戀氀攀 昀漀爀 琀眀漀 洀漀爀攀 琀攀爀洀猀⤀㬀 攀氀攀挀琀椀漀渀 氀愀猀琀 栀攀氀搀 漀渀 ㄀㤀ⴀ㈀㄀ 䴀愀礀 ㈀ ㄀㄀ ⠀渀攀砀琀 琀漀 戀攀 栀攀氀搀 椀渀 ㈀ ㄀㘀⤀ഀ ਍ 㰀戀爀㸀㰀椀㸀攀氀攀挀琀椀漀渀 爀攀猀甀氀琀猀㨀㰀⼀椀㸀 倀爀攀猀椀搀攀渀琀 䨀愀洀攀猀 䴀䤀䌀䠀䔀䰀 攀氀攀挀琀攀搀 瀀爀攀猀椀搀攀渀琀㬀 瀀攀爀挀攀渀琀 漀昀 瘀漀琀攀 ⴀ 䨀愀洀攀猀 䴀䤀䌀䠀䔀䰀 㔀㔀⸀㔀─Ⰰ 圀愀瘀攀氀 刀䄀䴀䬀䄀䰀䄀圀䄀一 㐀㄀⸀㐀─Ⰰ 倀栀椀氀椀瀀瀀攀 䈀伀唀䰀䰀䔀 ㄀⸀㜀─Ⰰ 刀愀氀瀀栀 嘀伀䰀䌀䔀刀䔀 ㄀⸀㔀─㬀 渀漀琀攀 ⴀ 琀栀椀猀 眀愀猀 琀栀攀 猀攀挀漀渀搀 攀氀攀挀琀椀漀渀 椀渀 眀栀椀挀栀 倀爀攀猀椀搀攀渀琀 䨀愀洀攀猀 䴀䤀䌀䠀䔀䰀 瀀愀爀琀椀挀椀瀀愀琀攀搀㬀 栀攀 眀愀猀 漀爀椀最椀渀愀氀氀礀 猀眀漀爀渀 椀渀 愀猀 瀀爀攀猀椀搀攀渀琀 愀昀琀攀爀 昀漀爀洀攀爀 瀀爀攀猀椀搀攀渀琀 䘀爀愀渀挀攀 䄀氀戀攀爀琀 刀䔀一䔀 猀琀攀瀀瀀攀搀 搀漀眀渀 椀渀 䄀瀀爀椀氀 ㈀  㐀ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ 㰀瀀㸀㰀戀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀 㴀 ∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀琀栀攀漀搀漀爀愀⸀挀漀洀⼀眀昀戀⼀眀昀戀㈀   ⼀搀攀昀椀渀椀琀椀漀渀猀⸀栀琀洀氀⌀氀攀最椀猀氀愀琀椀瘀攀开戀爀愀渀挀栀∀㸀䰀攀最椀猀氀愀琀椀瘀攀 戀爀愀渀挀栀㨀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀戀㸀㰀戀爀㸀ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (34 seats; 25 members elected by popular vote, 9 allocated on a proportional basis to parties winning at least 10% of the vote; members to serve five-year terms)਍ ഀ
elections: last held on 29 September - 1 October 2011 (next to be held in 2016); note - the National Assembly was dissolved in July 2011 resulting in early elections਍ ഀ
election results: percent of vote by party - PL 88.6%, PDM 10.9%, independents 0.6%; seats by party - PL 31, vacant - 3; note - the ruling SPPF changed its name to People's Party (Party Lepep) in June 2009; the SNP and NDP boycotted the 2011 elections਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ

Judicial branch:
਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ 䌀漀甀爀琀 漀昀 䄀瀀瀀攀愀氀㬀 匀甀瀀爀攀洀攀 䌀漀甀爀琀㬀 樀甀搀最攀猀 昀漀爀 戀漀琀栀 挀漀甀爀琀猀 愀爀攀 愀瀀瀀漀椀渀琀攀搀 戀礀 琀栀攀 瀀爀攀猀椀搀攀渀琀ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ 㰀瀀㸀㰀戀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀 㴀 ∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀琀栀攀漀搀漀爀愀⸀挀漀洀⼀眀昀戀⼀眀昀戀㈀   ⼀搀攀昀椀渀椀琀椀漀渀猀⸀栀琀洀氀⌀瀀漀氀椀琀椀挀愀氀开瀀愀爀琀椀攀猀开愀渀搀开氀攀愀搀攀爀猀∀㸀倀漀氀椀琀椀挀愀氀 瀀愀爀琀椀攀猀 愀渀搀 氀攀愀搀攀爀猀㨀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀戀㸀㰀戀爀㸀ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ Democratic Party or DP [James MANCHAM, Paul CHOW]; New Democratic Party or NDP; People's Party (Parti Lepep) or PL [France Albert RENE]; Popular Democratic Movement or PDM; Seychelles National Party or SNP [Wavel RAMKALAWAN] (formerly the United Opposition or UO)਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ

Political pressure groups and leaders:
਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ 刀漀洀愀渀 䌀愀琀栀漀氀椀挀 䌀栀甀爀挀栀ഀ ਍ 㰀戀爀㸀㰀椀㸀漀琀栀攀爀㨀㰀⼀椀㸀 琀爀愀搀攀 甀渀椀漀渀猀ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ 㰀瀀㸀㰀戀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀 㴀 ∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀琀栀攀漀搀漀爀愀⸀挀漀洀⼀眀昀戀⼀愀戀戀爀攀瘀椀愀琀椀漀渀猀⸀栀琀洀氀∀㸀䤀渀琀攀爀渀愀琀椀漀渀愀氀 漀爀最愀渀椀稀愀琀椀漀渀 瀀愀爀琀椀挀椀瀀愀琀椀漀渀㰀⼀愀㸀㨀㰀⼀戀㸀㰀戀爀㸀ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ACP, AfDB, AOSIS, AU, C, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, InOC, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ

Diplomatic representation in the US:
਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ 㰀椀㸀挀栀椀攀昀 漀昀 洀椀猀猀椀漀渀㨀㰀⼀椀㸀 䄀洀戀愀猀猀愀搀漀爀 䨀攀愀渀 刀漀渀愀氀搀 䨀唀䴀䔀䄀唀ഀ ਍ഀ
chancery: 800 Second Avenue, Suite 400C, New York, NY 10017਍ ഀ
telephone: [1] (212) 972-1785਍ ഀ
FAX: [1] (212) 972-1786਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ

Diplomatic representation from the US:
਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ 琀栀攀 唀匀 搀漀攀猀 渀漀琀 栀愀瘀攀 愀渀 攀洀戀愀猀猀礀 椀渀 匀攀礀挀栀攀氀氀攀猀㬀 琀栀攀 愀洀戀愀猀猀愀搀漀爀 琀漀 䴀愀甀爀椀琀椀甀猀 椀猀 愀挀挀爀攀搀椀琀攀搀 琀漀 匀攀礀挀栀攀氀氀攀猀ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ 㰀瀀㸀㰀戀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀 㴀 ∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀琀栀攀漀搀漀爀愀⸀挀漀洀⼀昀氀愀最猀⼀∀㸀䘀氀愀最㰀⼀愀㸀 搀攀猀挀爀椀瀀琀椀漀渀㨀㰀⼀戀㸀㰀戀爀㸀ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ five oblique bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, red, white, and green (bottom) radiating from the bottom of the hoist side; the oblique bands are meant to symbolize a dynamic new country moving into the future; blue represents sky and sea, yellow the sun giving light and life, red the peoples' determination to work for the future in unity and love, white social justice and harmony, green the land and natural environment਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ

National anthem:
਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ 㰀椀㸀渀愀洀攀㨀㰀⼀椀㸀 ∀䬀漀猀琀攀 匀攀猀攀氀眀愀∀ ⠀匀攀礀挀栀攀氀氀漀椀猀 唀渀椀琀攀⤀ഀ ਍ഀ ਍ഀ

਍㰀猀挀爀椀瀀琀 琀礀瀀攀㴀∀琀攀砀琀⼀樀愀瘀愀猀挀爀椀瀀琀∀ 猀爀挀㴀∀樀眀瀀氀愀礀攀爀⸀樀猀∀㸀㰀⼀猀挀爀椀瀀琀㸀ഀ ਍ഀ
lyrics/music: David Francois Marc ANDRE and George Charles Robert PAYET਍ ഀ
਍ 㰀攀洀㸀渀漀琀攀㨀㰀⼀攀洀㸀㰀⼀椀㸀 愀搀漀瀀琀攀搀 ㄀㤀㤀㘀ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ ഀ ਍ഀ ਍ഀ ਍ ഀഀ ਍㰀⼀昀漀渀琀㸀ഀഀ

਍㰀瀀㸀 ഀഀ
਍㰀倀㸀ഀഀ ਍一伀吀䔀㨀 吀栀攀 椀渀昀漀爀洀愀琀椀漀渀 爀攀最愀爀搀椀渀最 匀攀礀挀栀攀氀氀攀猀 漀渀 琀栀椀猀 瀀愀最攀 椀猀 爀攀ⴀ瀀甀戀氀椀猀栀攀搀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 ㈀ ㄀㈀ 圀漀爀氀搀 䘀愀挀琀 䈀漀漀欀 漀昀 琀栀攀 唀渀椀琀攀搀 匀琀愀琀攀猀 䌀攀渀琀爀愀氀 䤀渀琀攀氀氀椀最攀渀挀攀 䄀最攀渀挀礀⸀ 一漀 挀氀愀椀洀猀 愀爀攀 洀愀搀攀 爀攀最愀爀搀椀渀最 琀栀攀 愀挀挀甀爀愀挀礀 漀昀 匀攀礀挀栀攀氀氀攀猀 䜀漀瘀攀爀渀洀攀渀琀 ㈀ ㄀㈀ 椀渀昀漀爀洀愀琀椀漀渀 挀漀渀琀愀椀渀攀搀 栀攀爀攀⸀ 䄀氀氀 猀甀最最攀猀琀椀漀渀猀 昀漀爀 挀漀爀爀攀挀琀椀漀渀猀 漀昀 愀渀礀 攀爀爀漀爀猀 愀戀漀甀琀 匀攀礀挀栀攀氀氀攀猀 䜀漀瘀攀爀渀洀攀渀琀 ㈀ ㄀㈀ 猀栀漀甀氀搀 戀攀 愀搀搀爀攀猀猀攀搀 琀漀 琀栀攀 䌀䤀䄀⸀ ഀഀ ਍ഀഀ

਍ഀഀ
਍㰀栀爀㸀ഀഀ ਍ ⴀ 倀氀攀愀猀攀 戀漀漀欀洀愀爀欀 琀栀椀猀 瀀愀最攀 ⠀愀搀搀 椀琀 琀漀 礀漀甀爀 昀愀瘀漀爀椀琀攀猀⤀⸀ഀഀ
਍ ⴀ 䤀昀 礀漀甀 眀椀猀栀 琀漀 㰀戀㸀氀椀渀欀㰀⼀戀㸀 琀漀 琀栀椀猀 瀀愀最攀Ⰰ 礀漀甀 挀愀渀 搀漀 猀漀 戀礀 爀攀昀攀爀爀椀渀最 琀漀 琀栀攀 唀刀䰀 愀搀搀爀攀猀猀 戀攀氀漀眀 琀栀椀猀 氀椀渀攀⸀㰀⼀昀漀渀琀㸀ഀഀ
਍栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀椀洀洀椀最爀愀琀椀漀渀ⴀ甀猀愀⸀挀漀洀⼀眀漀爀氀搀开昀愀挀琀开戀漀漀欀开㈀ ㄀㈀⼀猀攀礀挀栀攀氀氀攀猀⼀猀攀礀挀栀攀氀氀攀猀开最漀瘀攀爀渀洀攀渀琀⸀栀琀洀氀ഀഀ

਍吀栀椀猀 瀀愀最攀 眀愀猀 氀愀猀琀 洀漀搀椀昀椀攀搀  㜀ⴀ䴀愀爀ⴀ㄀㈀ 㰀戀爀㸀 ഀഀ Copyright © 1995-2012 ITA all rights reserved.਍㰀戀爀㸀ഀഀ ਍ഀഀ ਍㰀琀搀 眀椀搀琀栀㴀㈀   瘀愀氀椀最渀㴀∀琀漀瀀∀ 愀氀椀最渀㴀∀氀攀昀琀∀ 戀愀挀欀最爀漀甀渀搀㴀∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀琀栀攀漀搀漀爀愀⸀挀漀洀⼀眀昀戀㈀  㠀⼀椀洀愀最攀猀⼀氀椀最栀琀开戀氀甀攀⸀最椀昀∀㸀ഀഀ ਍㰀℀ⴀⴀ 匀椀琀攀匀攀愀爀挀栀 䜀漀漀最氀攀 ⴀⴀ㸀ഀഀഀ
਍ഀഀഀ
਍㰀⼀昀漀爀洀㸀ഀഀ ਍ഀഀഀ ਍ഀഀ ਍㰀昀漀渀琀 猀椀稀攀㴀∀㈀∀ 昀愀挀攀㴀∀愀爀椀愀氀∀㸀ഀഀ ਍㰀甀氀㸀ഀഀ
  • |Main INDEX|਍㰀氀椀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀∀⸀⸀⼀椀渀搀攀砀⸀栀琀洀氀∀㸀㈀ ㄀㈀ 䤀一䐀䔀堀㰀⼀愀㸀ഀഀ
  • Country Ranks਍㰀氀椀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀琀栀攀漀搀漀爀愀⸀挀漀洀⼀眀昀戀⼀眀昀戀㈀   ⼀搀攀昀椀渀椀琀椀漀渀猀⸀栀琀洀氀∀㸀䐀䔀䘀䤀一䤀吀䤀伀一匀㰀⼀愀㸀ഀഀ

    ਍㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀∀椀渀搀攀砀⸀栀琀洀氀∀㸀匀攀礀挀栀攀氀氀攀猀 䤀渀搀攀砀 ㈀ ㄀㈀㰀⼀愀㸀ഀഀ

    ਍㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀琀栀攀漀搀漀爀愀⸀挀漀洀⼀眀昀戀挀甀爀爀攀渀琀⼀猀攀礀挀栀攀氀氀攀猀⼀椀渀搀攀砀⸀栀琀洀氀∀㸀匀攀礀挀栀攀氀氀攀猀 䴀愀椀渀 䤀渀搀攀砀㰀⼀愀㸀ഀഀ
  • Introduction਍㰀氀椀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀漀爀欀洀愀氀氀⸀挀漀洀⼀眀昀戀㈀  ㄀⼀猀攀礀挀栀攀氀氀攀猀⼀猀攀礀挀栀攀氀氀攀猀开栀椀猀琀漀爀礀开椀渀搀攀砀⸀栀琀洀氀∀㸀䠀椀猀琀漀爀礀㰀⼀愀㸀ഀഀ
  • Geography ਍㰀氀椀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀瀀栀漀琀椀甀猀⸀挀漀洀⼀挀漀甀渀琀爀椀攀猀⼀猀攀礀挀栀攀氀氀攀猀⼀挀氀椀洀愀琀攀⼀猀攀礀挀栀攀氀氀攀猀开挀氀椀洀愀琀攀开挀氀椀洀愀琀攀⸀栀琀洀氀∀㸀䌀氀椀洀愀琀攀㰀⼀愀㸀ഀഀ
  •   Maps
    ਍ഀഀ
  • People
    ਍㰀⼀戀㸀ഀഀ   Religion਍㰀戀㸀㰀氀椀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀∀猀攀礀挀栀攀氀氀攀猀开最漀瘀攀爀渀洀攀渀琀⸀栀琀洀氀∀㸀䜀漀瘀攀爀渀洀攀渀琀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀戀爀㸀㰀⼀䈀㸀ഀഀ ਍☀渀戀猀瀀㬀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀∀猀攀礀挀栀攀氀氀攀猀开挀栀椀攀昀猀⸀栀琀洀氀∀㸀 䜀漀瘀⸀ 䰀攀愀搀攀爀猀㰀⼀愀㸀ഀഀ
     Flags਍㰀戀㸀㰀戀爀㸀ഀഀ ਍㰀氀椀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀∀猀攀礀挀栀攀氀氀攀猀开攀挀漀渀漀洀礀⸀栀琀洀氀∀㸀䔀挀漀渀漀洀礀㰀⼀愀㸀ഀഀ
  • Communications਍㰀氀椀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀∀猀攀礀挀栀攀氀氀攀猀开琀爀愀渀猀瀀漀爀琀愀琀椀漀渀⸀栀琀洀氀∀㸀吀爀愀渀猀瀀漀爀琀愀琀椀漀渀㰀⼀愀㸀ഀഀ
    ਍☀渀戀猀瀀㬀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀瀀栀漀琀椀甀猀⸀挀漀洀⼀眀昀戀㈀  ㄀⼀愀椀爀瀀漀爀琀开挀漀搀攀猀开愀氀瀀栀愀⸀栀琀洀氀∀㸀䄀椀爀瀀漀爀琀 䌀漀搀攀猀㰀⼀愀㸀ഀഀ ਍㰀氀椀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀∀猀攀礀挀栀攀氀氀攀猀开洀椀氀椀琀愀爀礀⸀栀琀洀氀∀㸀䴀椀氀椀琀愀爀礀㰀⼀愀㸀ഀഀ
  • Transnational Issues਍㰀氀椀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀琀栀攀漀搀漀爀愀⸀挀漀洀⼀眀昀戀⼀瀀栀漀琀漀猀⼀∀㸀倀栀漀琀漀猀㰀⼀愀㸀ഀഀ ਍㰀甀氀㸀㰀䄀 栀爀攀昀㴀∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀琀栀攀漀搀漀爀愀⸀挀漀洀⼀眀眀眀愀搀猀⸀栀琀洀氀∀ 琀愀爀最攀琀㴀∀开戀氀愀渀欀∀㸀䄀搀瘀攀爀琀椀猀攀 䠀攀爀攀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀甀氀㸀ഀഀ ਍㰀甀氀㸀 ⸀ 㰀䄀 栀爀攀昀㴀∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀琀栀攀漀搀漀爀愀⸀挀漀洀⼀琀栀攀漀搀漀爀愀开昀攀攀搀戀愀挀欀⸀栀琀洀氀∀㸀䘀攀攀搀戀愀挀欀㰀⼀愀㸀ഀഀ ਍㰀戀爀㸀㰀戀爀㸀ഀഀ ਍㰀搀椀瘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀∀昀戀ⴀ氀椀欀攀∀ 搀愀琀愀ⴀ猀攀渀搀㴀∀昀愀氀猀攀∀ 搀愀琀愀ⴀ氀愀礀漀甀琀㴀∀戀甀琀琀漀渀开挀漀甀渀琀∀ 搀愀琀愀ⴀ眀椀搀琀栀㴀∀㠀 ∀ 搀愀琀愀ⴀ猀栀漀眀ⴀ昀愀挀攀猀㴀∀昀愀氀猀攀∀㸀㰀⼀搀椀瘀㸀ഀഀ

    ਍㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀∀栀琀琀瀀猀㨀⼀⼀琀眀椀琀琀攀爀⸀挀漀洀⼀猀栀愀爀攀∀ 挀氀愀猀猀㴀∀琀眀椀琀琀攀爀ⴀ猀栀愀爀攀ⴀ戀甀琀琀漀渀∀ 搀愀琀愀ⴀ挀漀甀渀琀㴀∀渀漀渀攀∀㸀吀眀攀攀琀㰀⼀愀㸀ഀഀ ਍㰀戀爀㸀㰀戀爀㸀ഀഀ ਍ഀഀ
    ਍ഀഀ ਍㰀⼀戀㸀ഀഀ
    ਍ഀഀ ਍㰀⼀琀搀㸀㰀⼀琀爀㸀㰀⼀琀愀戀氀攀㸀ഀഀ ਍㰀⼀戀漀搀礀㸀ഀഀ ਍ഀഀ ਍ഀഀ