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Romania


    • Names:

        conventional long form:
        none

        conventional short form:
        Romania

        local long form:
        none

        local short form:
        Romania

    • Digraph:
      RO

    • Type:
      republic

    • Capital:
      Bucharest

    • Administrative divisions:
      40 counties (judete, singular - judet) and 1 municipality* (municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti*, Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dimbovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Vilcea, Vrancea

    • Independence:
      1881 (from Turkey; republic proclaimed 30 December 1947)

    • National holiday:
      National Day of Romania, 1 December (1990)

    • Constitution:
      8 December 1991

    • Legal system:
      former mixture of civil law system and Communist legal theory; is now based on the Constitution of France's Fifth Republic

    • Suffrage:
      18 years of age; universal

    • Executive branch:

        chief of state:
        President Ion ILIESCU (since 20 June 1990, previously President of Provisional Council of National Unity since 23 December 1989); election last held 27 September 1992, with runoff between top two candidates on 11 October 1992 (next to be held NA 1996); results - Ion ILIESCU 61.4%, Emil CONSTANTINESCU 38.6%

        head of government:
        Prime Minister Nicolae VACAROIU (since November 1992)

        cabinet:
        Council of Ministers; appointed by the prime minister

    • Legislative branch:
      bicameral Parliament

        Senate (Senat):
        elections last held 27 September 1992 (next to be held NA 1996); results - PSDR 34.3%, CDR 18.2%, DP-FSN 12.6%, others 34.9%; seats - (143 total) PSDR 49, CDR 26, DP-FSN 18, PUNR 13, UDMR 12, PRM 6, PAC 6, PDAR 5, PSM 5, PL-93 2 other 1

        House of Deputies (Adunarea Deputatilor):
        elections last held 27 September 1992 (next to be held NA 1996); results - PSDR 34.0%, CDR 16,4%, DP-FSN 12.3%, others 37.3%; seats - (341 total) PSDR 116, CDR 56, DP-FSN 42, PUNR 29, UDMR 27, PL-93 19, PRM 15, PSM 13, PAC 5, other 19

    • Judicial branch:
      Supreme Court of Justice, Constitutional Court

    • Political parties and leaders:
      Democratic Party (DP-FSN), Petre ROMAN; Social Democratic Party of Romania (PSDR), Adrian NASTASE; Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania (UDMR), Bela MARKO; National Liberal Party (PNL), Mircea IONESCU-QUINTUS; National Peasants' Christian and Democratic Party (PNTCD), Corneliu COPOSU; Romanian National Unity Party (PUNR), Gheorghe FUNAR; Socialist Labor Party (PSM), Ilie VERDET; Agrarian Democratic Party of Romania (PDAR), Victor SURDU; The Democratic Convention (CDR), Emil CONSTANTINESCU; Romania Mare Party (PRM), Corneliu Vadim TUDOR; Civic Alliance Party (PAC), Nicolae MANOLESCU, chairman

        note:
        numerous other small parties exist but almost all failed to gain representation in the most recent election

    • Other political or pressure groups:
      various human rights and professional associations

    • Member of:
      ACCT, BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE, CEI (associate members), EBRD, ECE, FAO, G- 9, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NACC, NAM (guest), NSG, OAS (observer), OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNOSOM, UPU, WCL, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

    • Diplomatic representation in US:

        chief of mission:
        Ambassador Mihai Horia BOTEZ

        chancery:
        1607 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

        telephone:
        [1] (202) 332-4846, 4848, 4851

        FAX:
        [1] (202) 232-4748

        consulate(s) general:
        Los Angeles and New York

    • US diplomatic representation:

        chief of mission:
        Ambassador Alfred H. MOSES

        embassy:
        Strada Tudor Arghezi 7-9, Bucharest

        mailing address:
        American Consulate General (Bucharest), Unit 1315, Bucharest; APO AE 09213-1315

        telephone:
        [40] (1) 210 01 49, 210 40 42

        FAX:
        [40] (1) 210 03 95

        branch office:
        Cluj-Napoca

    • Flag:
      three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; the national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow band has been removed; now similar to the flags of Andorra and Chad


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