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    Russia Geography - 2004
    http://www.immigration-usa.com/wfb2004/russia/russia_geography.html
    SOURCE: 2004 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK

      Location:
      Northern Asia (that part west of the Urals is included with Europe), bordering the Arctic Ocean, between Europe and the North Pacific Ocean

      Geographic coordinates:
      60 00 N, 100 00 E

      Map references:
      Asia

      Area:
      total: 17,075,200 sq km
      water: 79,400 sq km
      land: 16,995,800 sq km

      Area - comparative:
      approximately 1.8 times the size of the US

      Land boundaries:
      total: 19,990 km
      border countries: Azerbaijan 284 km, Belarus 959 km, China (southeast) 3,605 km, China (south) 40 km, Estonia 294 km, Finland 1,313 km, Georgia 723 km, Kazakhstan 6,846 km, North Korea 19 km, Latvia 217 km, Lithuania (Kaliningrad Oblast) 227 km, Mongolia 3,485 km, Norway 196 km, Poland (Kaliningrad Oblast) 206 km, Ukraine 1,576 km

      Coastline:
      37,653 km

      Maritime claims - as described in UNCLOS 1982 (see Notes and Definitions):
      territorial sea: 12 NM
      exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
      continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

      Climate:
      ranges from steppes in the south through humid continental in much of European Russia; subarctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the polar north; winters vary from cool along Black Sea coast to frigid in Siberia; summers vary from warm in the steppes to cool along Arctic coast

      Terrain:
      broad plain with low hills west of Urals; vast coniferous forest and tundra in Siberia; uplands and mountains along southern border regions

      Elevation extremes:
      lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m
      highest point: Gora El'brus 5,633 m

      Natural resources:
      wide natural resource base including major deposits of oil, natural gas, coal, and many strategic minerals, timber
      note: formidable obstacles of climate, terrain, and distance hinder exploitation of natural resources

      Land use:
      arable land: 7.46%
      permanent crops: 0.11%
      other: 92.43% (1998 est.)

      Irrigated land:
      46,630 sq km (1998 est.)

      Natural hazards:
      permafrost over much of Siberia is a major impediment to development; volcanic activity in the Kuril Islands; volcanoes and earthquakes on the Kamchatka Peninsula; spring floods and summer/autumn forest fires throughout Siberia and parts of European Russia

      Environment - current issues:
      air pollution from heavy industry, emissions of coal-fired electric plants, and transportation in major cities; industrial, municipal, and agricultural pollution of inland waterways and seacoasts; deforestation; soil erosion; soil contamination from improper application of agricultural chemicals; scattered areas of sometimes intense radioactive contamination; groundwater contamination from toxic waste; urban solid waste management; abandoned stocks of obsolete pesticides

      Environment - international agreements:
      party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling
      signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

      Geography - note:
      largest country in the world in terms of area but unfavorably located in relation to major sea lanes of the world; despite its size, much of the country lacks proper soils and climates (either too cold or too dry) for agriculture; Mount El'brus is Europe's tallest peak


      NOTE: The information regarding Russia on this page is re-published from the 2004 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Russia Geography 2004 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Russia Geography 2004 should be addressed to the CIA.

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    http://www.immigration-usa.com/wfb2004/russia/russia_geography.html

    Revised 21-May-04
    Copyright © 2004 Photius Coutsoukis (all rights reserved)


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